Polymers are large molecules composed of smaller molecules called monomers. Monomers are
produced and either grow together or are assembled to produce a single polymer. There are synthetic and
natural polymers. Some examples of natural polymers would be wood, starches, fingernails, and hair.
Synthetic polymers are usually referred to as plastics. Petroleum, is the primary monomer used to produce
polymers. An English chemist named Alexander Parkes was the first scientist to produce the first synthetic
polymer in 1862. John Wesley Hyatt, an American, was the first person to produce a useable polymer two
years later. He named the product celluloid.
The prime virtue of polymers is a high strength-to-weight ratio. Industrial-strength polymers
surpass titanium in tensile strength. To add strength and improve flexibility, polymers are sometimes
fortified with short-fiber additives, mostly fiberglass. This is known as a polymer composite. One
particular polymer has three times the strength of tempered steel and is being used in bullet proof vests.
Another composite will be used to fasten together the sections proposed space stations. Polymers have also
been used in cars, including the Chevrolet Camaro and the Pontiac Fiero.
New polymers are being created with more strength and flexibility by combing two chemically
different polymers and producing a block copolymer. Combinations of block copolymers and composites
and intended for use in booster rockets and in materials of Earth-orbiting installations.
Most common polymers are usually solid, but a new class of polymers is being introduced in a
liquid crystal state. Although these polymers still have the physical characteristics of liquid, they are
structured more like solids. Many liquid crystals are transparent at one temperature and colored at another
temperature. This makes them suitable for use in liquid crystal displays, such as in digital watches, hand-
held calculators, and lap-top computers. A new liquid polymer, consisting of a mixture of iron and nickel,
is being used to make metal links that can be used in paper, glass, and on electronic circuit boards.
Despite the development and widespread use of polymers, scientific understanding is still sketchy.
Polymer development has occurred through trial and error. Scientific shortcomings are becoming more
apparent in the search for polymers that can meet the demands for high technology of today. The new
study is on the microstructure of polymers while still in a liquid state. The purpose is to learn how the
solid-state structure is developed. The ultimate goal is to be able to predict properties from a specific
material under a constant set of processing conditions.